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"Tree-ring chronologies present us with independent records of past natural events which, strangely, or perhaps
not so strangely, seem to link with some stories from myth."

Michael G. L. "Mike" Baillie is Professor Emeritus of Palaeoecology at Queen's University of Belfast, in Northern Ireland.
Baillie is a leading expert in dendrochronology, or dating by means of tree-rings. In the 1980s, he was instrumental in
building a year-by-year chronology of tree-ring growth reaching 7,400 years into the past.            

Upon examining the tree-ring record, Baillie noticed indications of severe environmental downturns around 2354 BC, 1628
BC, 1159 BC, 208 BC, and AD 540. The evidence suggests that these environmental downturns were wide-ranging
catastrophic events; the AD 540 event in particular is attested in tree-ring chronologies from Siberia through Europe and
North and South America. This event coincides with the second largest ammonium signal in the Greenland ice in the last
two millennia, the largest being in AD 1014, and both these epochs were accompanied by cometary apparitions. Baillie
explains the general absence of mainstream historical references to this event by the fact it was described in terms of
biblical metaphors since at that time "Christian beliefs included the dogma that nothing that happens in the heavens could
have any conceivable effect on the Earth."

Since then, he has devoted much of his attention to uncovering the causes of these global environmental downturns. He
believes that impacts from cometary debris may account for most of the downturns, especially the AD 540 event. This
hypothesis is supported in work by British cometary astrophysicists, who find that earth was at increased risk of
bombardment by cometary debris in the AD 400-600 time-frame, based on the frequency of fireball activity in the
meteor streams recorded in
Chinese archives.

To provide further support to his cometary debris theory, Dr Baillie has searched the written record and traditions
embodied in myths. There he has found evidence that the dates of the environmental downturns listed above are often
associated with collapses of civilisations or turning points in history. The AD 540 event, for example, may have been
associated with a catastrophe that ushered in the
Dark Ages of Europe.

His book, Exodus to Arthur: Catastrophic Encounters with Comets (Batsford, 1999), relates the findings of his tree-ring
studies to a series of global environmental traumas over the past 4400 years that may mark events such as the biblical
Exodus, the disasters which befell Egypt, collapses of Chinese dynasties, and the onset of the European
Dark Ages. The
Celtic Gods: Comets in Irish Mythology
(Tempus, 2005), co-authored with Patrick McCafferty, focuses on the AD 540
event as recorded in the historical records and myths of Ireland and shows that the imagery in the myths and the times
between events are consistent with a comet with an earth-crossing orbit similar to
P/Encke, as described by the British
astronomers Victor Clube and Bill Napier. His latest book,
New Light on the Black Death: The Cosmic Connection
(Tempus, 2006), shows how the tree-ring and Greenland ice core evidence and descriptions in annals, myths and metaphors
adduced in support of the global environmental downturn at AD 540, which included the
Justinian plague, also applies to
conditions extant at the time of the
Black Death in AD 1348.

Tree-Ring Dating and Archaeology (London: Croom-Helm, 1982)
A Slice Through Time: Dendrochronology and Precision Dating (London: Routledge, 1995)
Exodus to Arthur: Catastrophic Encounters with Comets (London: B.T. Batsford)
The Celtic Gods: Comets in Irish Mythology (Tempus, 2005), co-authored with Patrick McCafferty
New Light on the Black Death: The Cosmic Connection (Tempus, 2006)